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Volume 25, Issue 1,
, Pages 17-43
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This paper reports on a text-based empirical project aimed at testing and refining Leech and Short's (1981) model of speech and thought presentation. A balanced British English corpus consisting of twentieth-century prose fiction and contemporary press stories was tagged using Leech and Short's categories of speech and thought presentation as a starting point. The tagging of the corpus led to the introduction of two new categories (the narrator's report of voice and the narration of internal states), and a number of sub-types of existing categories. We define and exemplify the new categories and sub-categories, indicate their frequencies in our data, and explore their effects in different text-types. We also discuss the coding difficulties posed by anibiguities and overlaps between categories, and consider the implications of such problems and other factors for the claim that the boundaries between speech and thought presentation categories are clinal in nature. Although our research reveals a wealth of evidence to support the idea that the speech and thought presentation scale is a cline rather than a series of discrete categories, it also suggests that some category boundaries (especially those at the direct/free indirect boundary) are less clinal than others.
- M. McKenzieFree indirect speech in a fettered insecure society
Language and Communication
- R. Allen
The presentation of speech and thought in popular fiction
- J. Aarts et al.
Theory and practice in corpus linguistics
- A. Banfield
Unspeakable sentences: Narration and representation in the language of fiction
- C.R. Caldas-Coulthard
On reporting reporting: The representation of speech in factual and factional narratives
- H.H. Clark et al.
Quotations as demonstrations
- M. Dodgson
Computer recognition of speech presentation in text
- M. Fludernik
The fictions of language and the languages of fiction
- R. Fowler
- H.P. Grice
Logic and conversation
A corpus-based analysis of speech and thought presentation categories in 20th century British prose fiction
Computers and corpus analysis
Style in fiction
- An elaboration of the faithfulness claims in direct writing
2009, Journal of Pragmatics
The notion of faithfulness to an original text is one of the most important aspects in presenting others’ discourse especially in the form of direct speech (DS) and direct writing (DW). Although it is often assumed that exact words and expressions of the original discourse are used in direct discourse by non-linguists, recent studies on DS oppose the faithfulness assumptions and provide counter-examples of the word-by-word reproduction of the anterior discourse. This study, taking the notion of faithfulness and the extended faithfulness claims of direct discourse into account, shows that quoting exact words and phrases of the original does not necessarily reproduce a similar meaning. Quotations from literary reviews, which appear on covers of paperbacks, will be compared with their originals, and how speech acts and propositional contents of the original are reserved or altered in the quotations will be examined. The examples show that almost all the quotations use exact words and expressions of the original reviews. However, some quotations alter the speech-act value which the reviewer intended to convey in the original and generate different implicatures which were not found in the original. By analysing such cases in which faithfulness to the original discourse is not necessarily observed, this paper tries to elaborate upon the faithfulness claims of direct writing.
Reconstructed dialogues in the sociolinguistic interview
2021, Boletin de Filologia
Style and interpretation in hemingway's 'cat in the rain'
2020, The Language and Literature Reader
Deceptive Journalism: Characteristics of Untrustworthy News Items
2020, Journalism Practice
Research articleUse of Google Scholar in corpus-driven EAP research
Journal of English for Academic Purposes, Volume 11, Issue 4, 2012, pp. 319-331
This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the Google Scholar search engine. These resources (Google Scholar virtual corpus) are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. Google Scholar, however, was not designed for linguistic searches and special attention therefore needs to be paid to maximising its effectiveness in corpus linguistics research. The article discusses the search capacity of Google Scholar and compares the Google Scholar virtual corpus with the largest traditional corpus of written academic English, COCA – academic. Finally, the article offers a case study on the as-author-reporting verb structure (and its modifications). The study demonstrates that Google Scholar can be employed effectively in EAP research offering us new insights into reporting practices in two disciplines, Applied Linguistics and Physics, which were chosen for comparison. The benefits of using Google Scholar virtual corpus are the following: 1) wide representativeness of written academic language, 2) possibility of capturing subtle variation in academic patterns, and 3) possibility of comparing linguistic patterns across different academic fields.
Research articleLiquid metaphors as positive evaluations: A corpus-assisted discourse analysis of the representation of migrants in a daily New Zealand newspaper
Discourse, Context & Media, Volume 13, Part B, 2016, pp. 73-81
This paper reports on the discursive construction of immigrants in newspaper articles published during 2007 and 2008 in a prominent daily newspaper in Auckland, New Zealand׳s most migrant populated city. The study adopts a corpus-assisted approach to the study of discourse (Baker et al., 2008; Hardt-Mautner, 1995; Partington, 2004) and is informed by the notion of collocation analysis. Concordances containing the collocation of one of the terms migrant(s), immigrant(s), and Asians and a liquid metaphor were examined. A focus on liquid metaphors allows comparison with previous work on the use of liquid metaphors in the representation of immigrants. The analysis shows that liquid metaphors are used to construct mass immigration not only in negative ways as suggested in previous research, but that they can also be used to reflect the positive economic impact of mass immigration on New Zealand. The paper concludes by critically discussing the various factors influencing the representation of immigrants in the New Zealand context.
Research articleA Framework for Sustainable Interoperability of Negotiation Processes
IFAC Proceedings Volumes, Volume 45, Issue 6, 2012, pp. 1258-1263
The rise of new service-oriented technologies drives new ways to perform interoperability between companies, even in areas not directly connected to the enterprise core business. This paper proposes a framework to model and support sustainable interoperability of parallel and concurrent negotiations among organisations acting in the same industrial market, using a service-oriented platform. The underlying complexity is to model the dynamic environment where multi-attribute and multi-participant negotiations are racing over a set of heterogeneous resources. The metaphor Interaction Abstract Machines (IAMs) is used to model the parallelism and the non-deterministic aspects of the negotiation process, and a model-driven, cloud-based, service-oriented platform is proposed to manage a sustainable interoperability of the operating environment.
Research articleInfluence of surfactant on dynamics of photoinduced motions and light emission of a dye-doped deoxyribonucleic acid
Optical Materials, Volume 35, Issue 12, 2013, pp. 2389-2393
Pure deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is known to be soluble in water only and exhibits poor temperature stability. In contrary, it is well known that the complex of DNA – with cetyltrimethyl ammonium (CTMA) is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohols and can be processed into very good optical quality thin films by solution casting or spin deposition.
Despite the success of DNA–CTMA, there is still need for new cationic surfactants which would extend the range of available solvents for DNA complex. We test and present experimental results of influence of new surfactants replacing CTMA in the DNA complex and based on benzalkonium chloride (BA) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDCA) on their optical properties. Particularly, we were interested in all optical switching and light generation in amplified spontaneous emission process in these materials.
Research articleEpistemic modality in English-medium medical research articles: A systemic functional perspective
English for Specific Purposes, Volume 38, 2015, pp. 1-10
Epistemic modality is a critical yet intricate linguistic device in academic writing. In this study, we investigated the use of epistemic modality in 25 English-medium medical research articles (RAs) from a systemic functional perspective. We focused on the distribution of the value and the orientation of epistemic modality and their functions in medical RAs. The results showed that medical RA writers mostly rely on low and median values, and implicitly subjective, implicitly objective and explicitly objective orientations of epistemic modality. These findings indicate that medical RA writers tend to make claims mainly in a tentative, reserved and objective way. The findings of the study may help non-native medical RA writers to produce more acceptable medical RAs.
Research articleSkeleton Model Operation Tool for Supporting Coaches to Encourage Advice Verbalization in Motor Skill Teaching
Procedia Computer Science, Volume 96, 2016, pp. 1647-1656
In the context of sports, coaches often have difficulty verbally explaining their advice about motor skills because they are tacit knowledge. To verbalize motor skills, coaches must understand “which part in the body” and “how” athletes must move their bodies. The objective of this study is to support coaches to notice “which part of the body” and “how” by operating the skeleton models of other athletes. We introduce our developed system that obtains the skeletons of athletes and provides an interface that coaches can manipulate. Then we experimentally evaluated its effectiveness.
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